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Brave Little State’s 3rd Annual Brief History Of Vermont Road Names

Courageous Little State’s third Annual Temporary Historical past Of Vermont Street Names

Each summer season, we drive throughout Inexperienced Mountain creation to seek out the origins of the unusual highway names you’re questioning about.

Although we don’t all the time succeed.

Courageous Little State is VPR’s people-powered journalism mission. We reply questions on Vermont which have been requested by listeners, and chosen in public voting rounds. Usually, our voting rounds characteristic three finalists, and listeners choose one winner. However since we obtain so many highway identify questions, we did one thing totally different for this episode: 10 finalists, and 4 successful questions.

Try our first two Vermont highway identify episodes:

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First up: Satan’s Washbowl (trace: it is actual spooky)

Reported by Lydia Brown

Our first query comes from Peter Langella, who needed to know the “true origin” of Satan’s Washbowl, a single-lane grime highway connecting the cities of Moretown and Northfield.

“And the explanation I stated ‘true origin’ is as a result of there are such a lot of myths sort of surrounding what this highway is,” Peter explains. “Tales about what’s occurred there … however I actually wish to see in case your program may get to the true root of all of that.”

Maybe not surprisingly, the reply to a query a couple of “Satan’s Washbowl” seems to be fairly spooky. As a result of it’s practically not possible to inform the story of Satan’s Washbowl with out additionally telling the story of a legendary creature stated to roam the woods right here: “the Pigman.”  

Few converse in regards to the Pigman with extra authority than Jeff Hatch. Jeff’s from this space, and per his request, we meet at a culvert alongside Satan’s Washbowl. It’s one of many few pull-offs alongside this highway and it’s quiet right here, virtually otherworldly.

“I used to deliver my grandsons up right here at evening,” he says. “And we’d cease proper right here.” 

“Right here” is beneath a cover of deciduous timber. It’s daytime, however jagged shadows solid a sea of darkness round us. It’s the sort of environment that beckons a spine-chilling story. And Jeff has one to inform. 

It begins one thing like this: It was the early Nineteen Seventies. And Northfield Excessive College was internet hosting a dance.

“As 17-, 18-year-old boys, once we would have a dance we’d disguise our beer down within the sandpit behind the cemetery by the varsity,” Jeff says. “One evening we have been all on the dance, and a few the fellas headed to the sandpit — and these have been regular guys, these weren’t little children that have been afraid of issues. They got here operating again to the varsity, one in every of ‘em in tears, and scared stiff. They have been actually shook up.”

In keeping with Jeff, his classmates had had a run-in with some type of creature.

“They stated it was all white, the scale of an individual, operating on two ft, lined in white hair,” Jeff says. “They named it the Pigman, as a result of it had the face of a pig and the physique of an individual.

“In order that’s when the manhunt began.”

More from Brave Little State: Your Vermont Ghost Stories: A Halloween Special

You may recall our question-asker, Peter, was curious in regards to the “true origin” of the tales tied to Satan’s Washbowl. Effectively, should you proceed alongside this highway, within the route of Northfield, you’ll ultimately come throughout a seemingly essential clue: the location of a former pig farm.

This place is storied amongst locals. And what higher setting for a Pigman hunt than … a pig farm?

“We’d come up right here at evening and go to the pig farm,” Jeff Hatch remembers. “And there was 600-pound pigs within the buildings, in the dead of night. There was no energy. However we’d go in there, trying.”

Earlier than lengthy, others started reporting encounters with the Pigman.

“Somebody lived up on Turkey Hill, which is the opposite aspect of city. And so they heard one thing of their trash cans,” Jeff says. “So that they flipped on the sunshine to see. And there was a determine on the finish of their driveway. All white, lined in hair, rummaging within the trash can. So that they yelled at it. And it turned and checked out ‘em. And it had the face of a pig and claws, and it made a horrendous noise and ran off.”

I ask: Can Jeff doubtlessly reenact that horrendous noise?

“I don’t suppose I can doubtlessly make the noise,” he says. “It was a snarl, sort of a growl. Excessive pitched.”

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Again at Satan’s Washbowl, Jeff says the creature started focusing on younger romantics.

“So one evening there was a pair up right here, and one thing jumped on their automotive. Clawed the edges of their automotive all up, scratched all of it up, broke one of many mirrors off,” Jeff says.

He claims he later noticed the automotive, too.

“One thing clearly had occurred. There was one thing that had come after them,” he says. “And that occurred 4 or 5 occasions over the course of the following summer season.” 

So what propelled the legend of the Pigman? Andrew Liptak has a concept.

“If you happen to take a look at the broader context of what was taking place within the Fifties, ‘60s, ‘70s, you have got a time of actually massive social upheaval across the nation,” he says.

Andrew grew up in Moretown, only a quick drive from Satan’s Washbowl. He’s a author, journalist and sci-fi fan. And he’s given a variety of thought to the Pigman and the enchantment of this native legend.

“You could have UFO sightings. You could have Bigfoot,’ Liptak says. “There’s a variety of social anxiousness, and I believe individuals are in search of scary issues which are type of intangible to latch onto, that you could’t fairly clarify away.” 

Some even join this space to the satan itself — which takes us again to our question-asker and the “true origin” of Satan’s Washbowl. 

“My spouse’s grandfather, he would inform tales about listening to that’s the place the satan washes his dishes,” Peter advised us.

An alternate model has it that it’s the place the satan would go to clean his ft.

“Go there to clean one thing!” says Kay Schlueter with fun.

Kay has lived in Northfield because the mid-Nineteen Eighties. She spent greater than a decade as curator for the Northfield Historical Society. And after listening to Peter’s query, she started her personal investigation into the origin of the identify Satan’s Washbowl, which led her to a guide we’ve referenced extensively in our earlier highway identify episodes: Vermont Place Names: Footprints of Historical past, by Esther Munroe Swift.

(By the best way, everybody ought to maintain a watch out for this guide at yard gross sales and the like, as a result of it’s out of print and very expensive used. If you happen to occur to have a spare copy mendacity round, get in contact.)

Whereas there’s no direct reference to Satan’s Washbowl in Swift’s guide, she does cite different areas with “satan” within the identify. 

“All of them should do with an space of land, or a hill, or one thing that’s troublesome,” Kay Schlueter observes. “And so individuals affiliate that typically with ‘satan.’”

An inhospitable panorama. 

Andrew Liptak takes me for a distanced stroll again to the place the place I met Jeff Hatch: the culvert. It’s situated in a basin, stated to be the “washbowl,” and the temperature instantly drops right here.  

“So, you’ve acquired the timber arising above you they usually arch over the highway. And so they’re previous — like you’ll be able to see they’re massive they usually’ve been right here for a very long time,” Liptak says. “And, you understand, proper now it’s noon, however like October, November, the solar units actually quick over the mountain. The sunshine will simply vanish. And as you go down this hill, that’s when the shadows actually come out. The thought of ghosts and monsters isn’t fairly so implausible.”   

Popple Dungeon (however no dragons)

Reported by Angela Evancie

Our subsequent question-asker lives within the city of Grafton. When he and his household moved right here from Georgia 5 years in the past, Patrick Spurlock says he discovered about his new residence by, properly, driving round. It was on one in every of these journeys that he found a curious highway identify.

“We have been simply driving round with our younger daughter, making an attempt to assist her get some sleep,” he remembers. “And we have been driving from Grafton to Chester, and we seen a highway known as Popple Dungeon Street.”

Patrick says the identify instantly introduced him again to his childhood.

“I grew up within the ‘80s, and there was a cartoon present and a corresponding stuffed animal line from Hasbro known as ‘Popples.’ And clearly there was a separate factor for older children known as ‘Dungeons and Dragons.’ So I see a highway known as Popple Dungeon Street — the psychological imagery is simply loopy. So I’m like, the place did this identify come from?

So is there any connection between these entities and the Popple Dungeon Roads in Vermont?

“Would that it have been so,” says Ethan de Seife. “I want! [But] my analysis means that there is no such thing as a connection.”

Fortunate for us, the reply to Patrick’s query was already on the market — due to some sleuthing that Ethan did a number of years in the past, when he was a author for Seven Days. (He now lives in California, the place he’s a lecturer in communications and media research at Sonoma State College.)

In 2014, Ethan printed a chunk known as WTF: Why are streets in two Vermont towns named Popple Dungeon Road?

These two cities are Chester and Charlotte, that are in completely totally different components of the state. 

We should always be aware that our question-asker Patrick knew that some type of reply to his query existed, however he stated that he purposefully prevented it, as a result of he needed Courageous Little State to reply it. Which, Patrick, that’s such a praise. Thanks! However Ethan de Seife actually does get all of the credit score for this one.

“On this context, ‘popple’ is … an previous New England time period, not used a lot anymore so far as I do know, that may check with any variety of timber,” Ethan explains. “One would suspect that it has a detailed relationship with a poplar tree — and it may possibly … and sometimes does check with poplar timber. Nevertheless it’s not particular to poplar timber.” 

In order that’s “popple.” What about “dungeon”? What’s the connection there?

“The dungeon half was the weirdest half. And that was the half that I bear in mind being most puzzled by,” Ethan says. “However then I discovered this guide known as The Supply: Popple Dungeon, Vermont: The settlement, farms and family tree of a small neighborhood in Vermont.” 

A complete guide about Popple Dungeon. Typically you simply get fortunate. 

“And so, mainly there was a stretch of highway in Chester that locals known as the dungeon 

as a result of there have been a bunch of tree branches that hung over the highway, in order that it apparently solid darkish shade. It was a shadowy stretch of highway. And so by affiliation with a dungeon being a darkish place, that highway was the “popple dungeon” highway. 

How, then, did Charlotte decide up this eccentric identify? Ethan heard this story from a Charlotte resident named Ed Amidon:

“I bear in mind him telling me that … initially, individuals moved right into a avenue, it was unnamed, in Charlotte. And the household who lived there, in response to Ed Amidon, had a ‘mischievous son,’ I believe is how he put it, who stole the highway signal from the Chester Popple Dungeon Street and put it on the road signal, or nailed it to a tree or one thing like that, and declared this new avenue additionally to be named Popple Dungeon Street. Why? I don’t know if we’ll ever know.” 

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Regardless of the purpose, the identify caught. And ultimately it acquired recorded because the official identify of the highway, after a 1993 statute that required each highway in Vermont to have a reputation, for E-911 response.

“That’s simply what locals acquired to calling it,” Ethan says. “And so when it was time to declare a reputation, there was one identify that was prepared — and so, there we go, Popple Dungeon Street. What else are we gonna name it?”

What else certainly.

It is actually laborious to seek out solutions about Misplaced Nation

Reported by Nina Keck

Whenever you, our pricey viewers, voted for this query, I don’t suppose you knew what I might be in for.

Ellen Learn of St. Albans is usually retired now, however she used to spend so much of time driving for work. 

“Touring in rural Vermont, I’ve come throughout roads which are named Misplaced Nation Street,” Ellen tells me. “I’m wondering, what does the identify ‘Misplaced Nation’ check with? I discovered them in Essex, I discovered them in Fairfield, Bakersfield, Enosburg [Falls], they usually appear to be remotely situated.”

Ellen’s proper: In keeping with the state’s 911 emergency mapping system, there are 5 separate Misplaced Nation roads that cross eight totally different cities. All are in northern Vermont.

Ellen says the identify has all the time made her surprise.

“I believe it conjures up photographs of mystical issues,” she says. “Was it the twelfth Tribe of Israel, or was it Indians? Or was it a settlement that did not make it? I do not know.”

In Vermont, should you’re thirsty, you’ll be able to pour your self a Misplaced Nation beer. Drama or comedy are on faucet on the Misplaced Nation Theater in Montpelier — or they might be if we weren’t within the midst of a pandemic.  Firepower? That’s accessible at Misplaced Nation Weapons and Ammo in Swanton.

However the tales behind this phrase? That grew to become a little bit of a goose chase. 

In keeping with Esther Swift’s guide of Vermont place names, the Misplaced Nation Street in East Fairfield was most likely a nickname because it was an space removed from the more-settled part of city. Swift’s entry on the Misplaced Nation Street in Essex was equally bland: Appears somebody acquired misplaced within the space, and when he was discovered, he introduced that he had been at “misplaced nation.”

It’s not a lot to go on. And to attempt to reply this query, I made loads of calls. City clerks, librarians, long-time residents and historic society members. 

However I struck out. I didn’t discover any strong solutions or fleshed-out theories on the Misplaced Nation roads in Bakersfield, Berkshire or East Haven. Which Craftsbury resident Dave Linck properly rubbed in.

“So that you’ve nonetheless acquired a thriller,” he stated.

However Dave stated we’re not the one ones curious in regards to the identify. He stated the Craftsbury Historic Society, which he’s a member of, mentioned this very subject again in 2015 throughout one in every of their conferences. 

I used to be capable of hear again to a recording, and one gentleman remembered a hippy colony in North Wolcott that known as themselves Misplaced Nation Farm. They’d beforehand lived in Craftsbury. Possibly they named the highway? he puzzled. Others weren’t certain.  

I can’t see the moderator at this assembly, however I think about he’s shrugging his shoulders at this level as he seems across the room and hears no clear consensus.

“Effectively there’s one other of historical past’s mysteries,” he says. Then he strikes on to the following quirky highway identify.

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Russ Spring has a household enterprise on the Misplaced Nation Street in Craftsbury. His dad and mom based the Craftsbury Outside Middle again within the Nineteen Seventies, and he’s heard a number of theories in regards to the highway identify.

“Probably the most fascinating one was a narrative advised by Earl Wilson, who’s an old-timer, who a few years in the past truly plotted the route of the Bayley-Hazen Street because it went by way of Craftsbury,” Russ says. 

Russ mentions the Bayley-Hazen Path like I ought to know what it’s… however I don’t.  And it’s price explaining. 

Throughout the Revolutionary Struggle, the Continental Military wanted a shorter path to Canada to assist in their siege of Quebec. So in 1776, George Washington ordered this new highway to be cleared and constructed between what’s now Newbury, Vermont and St. Johns, Quebec close to Montreal.

Jacob Bayley and Moses Hazen have been the important thing instigators of constructing it – in order that’s the place that highway identify comes from. 

If solely Misplaced Nation have been as simply defined.

Anyway, work on the Bayley-Hazen Street proceeded in suits and begins for a number of years throughout the Revolution, till it was ultimately deserted. In keeping with Earl Wilson’s concept, that  Revolutionary Struggle path might assist clarify the Misplaced Nation Street in Craftsbury. 

Right here’s Russ Spring once more:

“After they have been sort of clearing that path, they got here throughout a pre-existing path, they usually determined, properly, this should imply we’re gonna name this a Misplaced Nation highway after the misplaced nation of Israel, that should have made it. However the truth is, Earl thought it was extra possible a path that was made by Native Individuals alongside the aspect of the lake. And it simply intersected the route of the Bayley-Hazen Street. That’s how he advised the story.”

This Native American connection comes up loads and never simply in Vermont — there are literally Misplaced Nation Roads everywhere in the nation. 

I requested Wealthy Holschuh about this. He lives in Wantastegok, higher generally known as Brattleboro Vermont, and he’s a spokesperson for the Elnu Abenaki tribe in southern Vermont. 

Wealthy is a researcher of native Indigenous tradition, and he doesn’t know of any corresponding Abenaki references within the Vermont cities with Misplaced Nation roads. He thinks the identify displays a broader story of the erasure and displacement of Native individuals, a narrative that he says has been cloaked in thriller and fantasy.

“Individuals like to romanticize Native heritage,” Wealthy says. “We identify our athletic groups. We identify our butter after them, all various things. It turns into a romantic factor. And it’s acquired little or no to do with fact in that the constructing of this nation is based on displacing all that and exploiting it.”

More from Brave Little State: What Is The Status Of The Abenaki Native Americans In Vermont Today?

Wealthy says a highway signal with the identify Misplaced Nation helps maintain a stereotype that Native American communities are gone. That, in fact, is fake. 

“What they do not notice is that the Native individual could be standing proper subsequent to them and appears precisely like them,” Wealthy says. “And the explanation that they do not see that’s as a result of they weren’t taught that, they’re blind to that. And if one doesn’t acknowledge or find out about one thing,  you do not care about it.”

Native individuals are nonetheless right here, Wealthy says. They haven’t vanished. However what occurred to them — the occupation, the colonization, the truth of that — is difficult to face.

“And so it is loads simpler to have misplaced nations,” he says. 

Tim Jerman was doing his personal sleuthing on the historical past of Misplaced Nation Street the place he lives in Essex. Right here, he thinks the identify remembers a distinct sort of neighborhood. 

I meet Tim on a wet Monday, when he drives me to northwest Essex — part of city historians check with because the Misplaced Nation space.

“There’s not a lot you’ll be able to see on it now,” Tim says. “It’s only a grime highway within the nation.”

Tim’s been researching early nineteenth century homesteads on this space.

“All of this highway and particularly out right here, the names — Wooden, that’s an Irish identify,” he says. “Shanley is an Irish identify, and all these individuals I discovered within the census, they have been all born in Eire.”

We get out of the automotive to hike in close by Indian Brook Park, which backs up on the Misplaced Nation Street. Tim factors to a spot that was a cellar gap.

“You’ll see how rocky and hardscrabble it’s,” he says. 

Utilizing historic data, Tim’s been capable of determine numerous homesteads. Some, like this one, at the moment are nothing greater than echoes: rocky holes lined with sticks and brambles, hidden alongside the path.  

“And then you definately come to seek out out that there is not less than 30 households, after which as time goes on, greater than that, which are transferring in, they usually’re very Irish, they usually’re within the poorest a part of city,” Tim says. “And as you begin to consider even a hike right here within the fall or the winter and also you begin, ‘Oh, my God, winter right here earlier than any facilities.’ However this was a troublesome, troublesome life, so I simply began to suppose, ‘Misplaced Nation, Misplaced Nation is their homeland.’”

I inform Tim there’s one thing poetic — virtually unhappy, somewhat mythic — in regards to the identify Misplaced Nation.   

“It is vitally poetic,” Tim says. “Yeah, it’s unhappy. It is evocative of one thing that was there earlier than. You recognize, there have been individuals residing right here and there was a neighborhood right here. After which over time, it simply grew to become too laborious.”

Good luck sneaking by way of Smugglers’ Notch

Reported by Angela Evancie

Now for our final query (for this 12 months). On a current afternoon, I hopped within the backseat of Barbara Baraw’s Subaru, carrying a masks, for a tour of Route 108, a.okay.a. Mountain Street, in Lamoille County.

“To me that is coming into the Notch correct, as a result of we don’t have any middle strains, and the highway does get slender,” Barbara says. “Are you able to see by way of these timber? There’s one of many newer landslides.”

This steep and slender highway winds by way of the realm that Jericho resident Mischa Tourin requested BLS about:

“How did Smugglers’ Notch get its identify, and what sort of legends and folklore nonetheless exist about treasure searching in that space at present?”

Smugglers’ Notch — not precisely a highway identify, however, you understand.

“Like, I do know somewhat bit in regards to the historical past: I do know that the identify of Smugglers’ Notch comes from the commerce embargos with Nice Britain and Canada, and I do know that there was some smuggling that occurred throughout Prohibition,” Mischa stated. “However I’ve additionally heard that there’s these tales of, like, treasure that has been hidden within the caves there, after which within the rock partitions and various things like that, and I’m curious what treasure-hunter sort issues there are there.”

In keeping with a tune by Rockin’ Ron the Pleasant Pirate, the Smugglers’ Notch treasure is, properly, honey. From a honey bee. A bit tangential, however it’s a pleasant earworm:


As for the origin of the identify, maybe you’ve heard of the historical past that Mischa mentions, that the notch was used for smuggling items and cattle across the Struggle of 1812, after which later booze throughout Prohibition. That smugglers used the rocky move for hiding out, or stashing contraband. It’s compelling.

“We’ll pull in and I’ll present you the caves, and we’ll begin the parable dialog,” Barbara says with fun.

My tour information Barbara Baraw occurs to be the president of the Stowe Historic Society. After we get to the highest of the notch, we stand by some stone outcroppings, and he or she tells me that the tales of smuggling right here, significantly within the 1800s, appear to be simply that: tales.

“I don’t want complete written documentation. However I would like greater than only a remark or two,” Barbara says. “And I’ve learn a variety of the native city conferences, letters, and I can’t put it collectively. I imply, if it’s true, I’d love someone to place it underneath my nostril. I actually would. ‘Trigger then I wouldn’t should go searching anymore.”

Barbara doesn’t put a lot inventory in one other style of tales, which is that folks fleeing slavery used the notch to maneuver north.

“There have been different methods to go,” she says. “Simply going up and down the key highways, like Route 7, or 100.”

The primary highway by way of the notch for cars was surveyed in 1917. For that reason, Barbara thinks the tales of Prohibition smuggling throughout the ‘20s and ‘30s are extra believable.

“However I don’t consider that it was a part of the large motion that’s been written about [smugglers] coming throughout the border and happening into Albany or the Boston space,” she says. “It comes again to that very same query…”

That very same query being: Why would you’re taking the trail of most resistance? The notch highway isn’t straightforward going, even at present. Plus, this space’s been generally known as Smugglers’ Notch since not less than the late 1800s. Isn’t that somewhat… predictable?

“If you happen to’re smuggling booze throughout Prohibition, most likely the final place you wish to go is the place it’s named Smugglers’ Notch,” says Brian Lindner, one other historian of this space. “As a result of that’s the place the cops are gonna be ready.”

“For my part as a historian, it’s more likely that there wasn’t actually any smuggling occurring by way of Smugglers’ Notch,” he tells me. “That is most likely the place the smugglers that have been energetic over within the Lake Champlain Valley got here to cover. As a result of this was an ideal hiding spot. Nevertheless it’s a horrible place to smuggle merchandise forwards and backwards by way of the notch itself.”

Brian grew up in Stowe, proper on the entrance to Smugglers’ Notch. Till he was 10 years previous, he actually lived in a ski lodge.

“My dad was the forest ranger right here, for the Mount Mansfield State Forest, and our condo was within the north finish of the Mount Mansfield Base Lodge,” he says. “In order that’s the place we lived.”

Brian is retired now, and calls himself an unofficial historian at Stowe Mountain Resort. He’s stuffed with tales about this space — however they’re true tales, not legends. 

Tales of the Civilian Conservation Corps, or CCC, which constructed the primary ski trails in Vermont. And of this space’s connection to World Struggle II, and the 10th Mountain Division, which waged battle on skis.

“In World Struggle II, Minnie Dole, who was a member of Mount Mansfield Ski Patrol, based the Nationwide Ski Patrol,” Brian says. “He satisfied President Roosevelt to type the tenth Mountain Division in World Struggle II. So you’ll be able to hint the tenth Mountain Division routes proper again to Stowe.”

Brian even advised me the story of a Bonnie and Clyde-style shootout that occurred right here within the notch.

“July 1931, a fellow abandoned the Military at Fort Ethan Allen, dedicated homicide over within the Jeffersonville aspect of the notch, and as he was driving by way of, individuals in Jeffersonville, Cambridge, known as the Stowe aspect and stated, ‘Arrange a highway block, there’s a killer a’comin by way of Smugglers’ Notch!’” Brian explains. “Amazingly, they riddled the automotive with bullets, and by no means hit him as soon as.”

Our question-asker Mischa requested about legends of treasure right here within the notch. In my analysis, I discovered principally general references to stashes of loot left behind by smugglers, which, perhaps there weren’t so a lot of these? 

I additionally noticed a couple of mentions of a Captain Slayton, a former 49-er, who looked for gold in an area brook, and both didn’t find much — or did, however pretended he didn’t

Neither Brian Lindner or Barbara Baraw had any treasure tales to share. They are saying the true tales are simply nearly as good. However if you wish to inform tales of smuggling and hiding out within the notch, Barbara Baraw doesn’t thoughts.

“No, we now have to have myths and legends,” she says. “I imply, that’s what society’s about — that’s what oral historical past is about. And it’s enjoyable.”

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Thanks a lot for trying out this newest episode. And due to Peter Langella, Patrick Spurlock, Ellen Learn and Mischa Tourin for the good questions. 

If in case you have a query about Vermont place names, or the rest, ask it at bravelittlestate.org. When you’re there you’ll be able to sign up for our newsletter and vote on the query you need us to sort out subsequent. We’re on Instagram and Twitter @bravestatevt.

Lydia Brown and Nina Keck reported this episode with host Angela Evancie, with modifying from Lynne McCrea. Our digital producer is Elodie Reed and we now have engineering assist from Chris Albertine. Ty Gibbons composed our theme music; different music by Blue Dot Classes and the US Previous Guard Fife and Drum Corps. The archive audio in our Satan’s Washbowl piece got here from Monsters and Mysteries in America.

Particular due to: Paul Gillies, Craig Whipple, Abagael Giles, Ethan de Seife, and Joe Citro. 

Courageous Little State is a manufacturing of Vermont Public Radio. We now have assist from the VPR Innovation Fund, and VPR members. If you happen to like our present, please make a present at bravelittlestate.org/donate. Or depart us a ranking or overview in your podcast app.

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